Ingredient Dictionary

A

Acetylcarnosine - A naturally occurring compound chemically related to the dipeptide carnosine. Increases mitochondria in cells. Particularly active against lipid peroxidation.

Acetyl Glutathione - Glutathione is a potent antioxidant, and its depletion is a component of every chronic disease, or inflammatory condition, including aging. A tripeptide that contains an unusual peptide linkage between the amine group of cysteine and the carboxyl group of the glutamate side-chain. It is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides.

Albumin/Albumen - Refers generally to any protein that is water soluble. It is primarily used in skin care for its binding properties.

Alcohol Denat - Denatured alcohol is used as a solvent.

Aleurites Moluccana Seed Oil - When used in cosmetics and personal care products, it functions as a skin-conditioning agent-miscellaneous and a skin-conditioning agent - occlusive.

Allantoin - A moisturizing and keratolytic, meaning that is causes keratin in the skin to soften. This property helps skin to heal more quickly and to bind moisture more effectively.

Aloe Vera - Widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries. It has various rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties.

Alpha Lipoic Acid - A antioxidant that is made by the body and is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy. Antioxidants attack "free radicals" and waste products created when the body turns food into energy.

Althea Officinalis (Marshmellow) Root Extract - The mucilaginous extract of the roots of the Marshmellow attracts water and functions as a skin humectant. It is used to soothe and soften the skin while promoting flexiblity of the stratum corneum.

Amino-Guanidine - Similar to D-Beta Glucosamine, this is an anti-inflammatory agent and a building block to collagen and elastin. The D-Beta isomer is the only isomer that the human body can utilize for this function. It works in combination with beta fructan to build stable mucopolysaccharides in the tissue.

Apple Extract - A natural fragrance and antioxidant also containing the moisturizing Malic Acid.

Aqua-Lanosterol - A tetracyclic triterpenoid, which is the compound from which all steroids are derived.

Arnica - Applied to the skin as a cream, ointment, liniment, salve or tincture, arnica has been used to soothe muscle aches, reduce inflammation and heal wounds. It is commonly used for injuries such as sprains and bruises.

Ascorbic Acid 20% - Also known as Vitamin C, this is a well documented antioxidant for the skin and is the main ingredient in Vitamin C Serum product. It is well known that L-Ascorbic Acid is required for normal skin physiology (in smaller quantities). In larger concentrations it is restorative to skin damaged by sun exposure, smoking and/or improper nutrition (i.e. eating large quantities of sugar). This concentration also acts as a preservative for the product and is commonly used in food preservation. The L form is the only form that can be utilized in the formation with L-Amino Acids into collagen and elastin.

Astaxanthin - A carotenoid. It is an antioxidant with a slightly lower antioxidant activity in some model systems than other carotenoids.

Azelaic Acid - This saturated dicarboxylic acid exists as a white powder. It is found in wheat, rye, and barley. In plants, azelaic acid serves as a "distress flare" involved in defense responses after infection. Azelic Acid is used to treat mild to moderate acne. It works in part by stopping the growth of skin bacteria that can help cause acne. Azelaic Acid also helps to lessen acne by keeping skin pores (tiny openings on the skin's surface) clear.

Azurite - A soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.

B

B Complex Vitamins - B vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. B vitamins include; B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine, or pyridroxine hydrochloride), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid) and B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin in vitamin supplements).

Beeswax - From virgin bees, a non-toxic emollient and emulsifier.

Behenalkonium - An excellent conditioning and anti-static agent. It smoothes the hair follicle to give it a shiny appearance. It's frequently used in shampoos and conditioners to improve the hair's body and manageability. It also functions as a surfactant, and is commonly used in shaving creams and liquid soap.

Behenyl Alcohol - An emulsifier that also keeps the oil and liquid parts of a solution from separating. Its other functions include altering the thickness of a liquid, increasing foaming capacity, and stabilizing foams.

Bellis Perennis - A common European species of daisy, of the Asteraceae family, often considered the archetypal species of that name. It is used in homeopathic medicine as a treatment for wounds and after certain surgical procedures.

Beta Carotene - A powerful antioxidant which when split by the body forms two L-Retinol molecules.

Beta-Fructan - A polysaccharide found in mushroom extracts and is documented in Japanese studies to improve and stimulate immune functions of the skin (and entire body). This is a right-handed polymer (similar to aloe vera polysaccharides) that guides the activity of glucosamine into the cellular compartments that oversee the skin's moisture retention.

Beta-Glucan - Mushroom derived polysaccharide that enhances immune function (see Beta Fructan).

Beta-Glucosamine - Similar in structure to cellulose in humans, it is used in combination with Beta Fructan to build stable mucopolysaccharides in the tissue. It is an anti-inflammatory agent and a building block to collagen and elastin. The D-Beta isomer is the only isomer that the human body can utilize for this function. It works.

Blue Cornmeal -A meal (course flour) ground from dried maize. It is used as an exfoliant.

Borage Oil - Made from a wildflower (borago officinalis) commonly called the "starflower". Used and an anti-inflammatory agent as well as for certain other skin conditions. It has one of the highest amounts of Gamma-Linolenic Acid (omega-6) of seed oils. It is considered to be soothing, regenerative and beneficial to all skin types.

C

Calcium Gluconate - A mineral supplement. Improves skin moisture content and reinforces the cutaneous barrier. Helps to revitalize and restructure the skin.

Cannabidiol- CBD affects the endocannabinoid system in the body, which can make skin more youthful and radiant.  It’s anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties are especially useful when trying to improve skin, particularly for conditions like acne, eczema, and psoriasis.  Rich in antioxidants as well as vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, 

Caprillic/Capric Triglycerides -Proven, non-toxic emollient which prevents the loss of water from the skin. This is anti-fungal and is derived from milk and butter fat. They condition the glycol-proteins that connect epidermal cells and improve the permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. See Milk Caprillic/Capric Triglycerides.

Caprylate/Caprate - Primarily used in cosmetics as an emollient and emulsifier for formulations. It is an ester of coconut fatty alcohol, caprylic acid and capric acid. It improves the glide of many varieties of products during application and leaves a non-greasy, soft after touch.

Carnosine Palmitate - Increases cell mitochondria.

Cassia Betaglycan - Derived from Cassia bark. Left-handed, D-catechin, boosts immunity; betaglycan calms skin during immune reactions.

Castor Oil - A vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean. Castor isostearate succinate is a polymeric mixture of esters with isostearic acid and succinic acid used for skin conditioning, such as in shampoo, lipstick and lip balm. Ricinoleic acid is the main component of castor oil, and it exerts anti-inflammatory effects.

Cetearyl Alcohol -An alcohol of a fatty acid found in egg yolks which suppresses peroxidation of epidermal lipids. It is a non-toxic emulsifier.

Cetearyl Olivate - A nonionic emulsifier that helps blend ingredients together in cosmetic solutions, usually ones with moisturizing properties. It helps soften the skin and hair, and gives products a smooth and luxurious feel.

Cetyl Alcohol - An emollient and emulsion stabilizer with low toxicity and does not promote acne.

Cherry Puree/Wild Cherry Bark Extract - These are soothing antioxidants.

China – An ancient herb with several antioxidants and energetic qualities.

Chlorophyll - A green pigment found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. It acts as an antioxidant.

Chrysin - A naturally occurring flavone chemically extracted from the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea). Advertised as an aromatase inhibitor supplement by bodybuilders and athletes. It has been shown to induce anti-inflammatory effects, most likely by inhibition of COX-2 expression and via IL-6 signaling.

Citric Acid - A beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that softens the skin and is an essential contributor to the formation of L-ATP, the body's most important source of energy. It is found in all fruit.

Cyclotetrasiloxane (or Clotetrasiloxane)/Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane - A silicone polymer commonly used in cosmetics and skin care products to keep ingredients in the skin for a longer period of time.

Cocamidopropyl Betain - An amine found naturally in coconut milk, combined with a glucosamine-like substance. It allows for foaming action and is a source for collagen building glucosamine. It also maintains the elasticity of the skin.

Coconut Amino Acids - an Assistant to the lathering effect.

Cranberry Extract - A antioxidant.

Cyclomethicone/Dimethicone Copolyol and Silicone - Increases the lining of hyaluronic acid and other mucopolysaccharides to protein in connective tissue and skin. Silicon is increasingly recognized as important in wound healing, anti-aging and maybe acne control.

Cyclopentasiloxane - A silicone polymer, allowing the active ingredient to remain longer.

D

D2O (Heavy Water) - Formally called deuterium oxide. It is a form of water that contains the hydrogen isotope deuterium rather than the common protium isotope. This difference increases the strength of water's hydrogen-oxygen bonds, and this in turn is enough to cause differences that are important to some biochemical reactions. The human body naturally contains deuterium equivalent to five grams fo heavy water.

D-Beta Fructan - See Beta Fructan.

D-Beta Glucosamine - See Beta Glucosamine.

Denatured Alcohol – Ethyl alcohol for topical application.

Depeptide-2 - A dipeptide consisting of the standard amino acids valine and tryptophan. It mainly works as a skin conditioning agent. It's also believed to improve lymphatic circulation, and for this reason is often used in eye creams aiming to combat dark and puffy under-eye circles. Many cosmetic manufacturers market it as clinically proven to reduce under-eye bagginess and puffiness, however, it's difficult to find any (and unbiased) "clinical" data supporting such claims.

D-Glucuronic Acid - Chiral D-Glucuronic Acid is the most basic building bloc of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate and precursor of Vitamin C, the chief detoxifying agent in both plants and animals. Hyper-efficient skin moisturizer direct from Nature.

Diethanolamine - Often abbreviated DEA. It is used as a surfactant.

DMAE - Also known as "dimethylaminoethanol" and "dimethylethanolamine". It is a natural compound sometimes used as an ingredient in skin-care products. Also sold in dietary supplement form, DMAE is essential to the production of acetycholine (a type of chemical that helps nerve cells to transmit signals).

D-Panthenol - Used in cosmetics, panthenol is a humectant, emollient and moisturizer. Also known as Vitamin B5.

E

Epithelial Growth Factor - Derived from plants, EGF results in cellular proliferation. Ergothioneine - A naturally occurring amino acid and is a thiourea derivative of histidine, containing a sulfur atom in the imidazole ring. This amino acid has antioxidant properties, but its chemistry differs from conventional sulfur-containing antioxidants such as glutathione or lipoic acid. It conserves and maintains the levels of toher antioxidants such as Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione.

Essential Oils - Uses aromatherapy principals. Anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral.

Ethyl Hydroxide - A form of ethyl alcohol used solvent in the Vitamin A/Glycolic Complex in a very small amount that will not dry the skin.

Ethyl Macadamiate - Well suited for increasing sunscreen coverage. It is a promising alternative to cyclomethicone and dimethicone as a skin feel modifier where botanical, nonvolatile and/or lipid-soluble substance is preferred.

F

Foraha Oil - A remarkable topical healing agent with skin healing, anti-neurologic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibiotic and antioxidant properties. The healing capabilities has been thoroughly researched. The evidence on its ability to heal damaged skin is both compelling and astounding.

G

Galium - A detoxifier that is used in a wide range of problems involving the lymph system, such as swollen glands.

Gingko - Gingko extract may have three effects on the human body: improvement in blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs, protection against oxidative cell damage from free radicals, and blockage of many of the effects of platelet activating factors.

Gluconolactone - An antioxidant acid (PHA) that is capable of chelating metals.

Glutathione Palmitate – A topical glutathione promeation – a truly anti-aging nutrient.

Glycerin - Steam distilled from sugar fermentation. Improves the mobility of the right-handed ingredients through the dead stratum corneum.

Glycerol - Glycerin is an emollient that moisturizes the skin. It also enhances the mobility of right-handed ingredients to penetrate the dead stratum corneum.

Glyceryl Distearate - Improves the mobility of the D (right-handed) ingredients to penetrate the stratum corneum.

Glyceryl Isotearate - Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.

Glyceryl Stearate - A non-toxic emulsifier.

Glycolic Acid Polymer – An exfoliant to soften the skin that breaks down slowly in tissues.

Green Papaya - A rich source of nutrients such as provitamin A carotenoids, Vitamin C, B Vitamins, lycopene, dietary minerals and dietary fiber.

Green Tea Extract - A herbal derivative from green tea leaves containing antioxidant ingredients. Green tea extract is twenty times more antioxidant-active than Vitamin C.

H

Hamamelis Extract -Witch Hazel- An antioxidant extract that contains the powerful antioxidants L-Epigallocatechin (also found in green tea extract), D-Gallocatechin and D-Hamamelose which remove free radical damage and has a calming effect.

Hazel Nut Extract - Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat. They contain significant amounts of thiamine and Vitamin B6.

Honey - Honey contains tiny amounts of several compounds thought to function as antioxidants.

Hordeum Disticon (Barley) Extract – Anti-aging active ingredient that protects skin against free radicals.

Hyaluronic Acid - A major component of skin, where it is involved in tissue repair.

Hydroquinone – A bleaching agent.

I/J

Idebenone - An antioxidant similar to coenzyme Q-10.

Jasmine Extract (Jasminol) - Aromatic alcohol from the jasmine (branch of the olive family) that is a powerful pheromone; discourages formation of bacteria and other micro-organisms. A natural preservative.

Jojoba Beads - Small beads used to exfoliate the skin. Commonly used in cosmetic formulations due to its remarkable similarity to the natural oils produced by the human skin.

K

Kaolin - A white clay also known as China Clay. It serves as a thickener and a base in mask products. Additionally it helps remove debris, absorb oils and reduces shine on skin.

Kojic Acid - Used in cosmetics to lighten skin. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties.

L

Lactobacillus Ferment - A proteolitic fraction that releases proteases (enzymes that breakdown proteins). The proteases are then used in cosmetics for gentle skin exfoliation and reduction of fine lines and wrinkles.

L-Ascorbic Acid 20% - Antioxidant for the skin. It is required for normal skin physiology (in smaller quantities) and in larger concentrations it is restorative to skin damaged by sun exposure, smoking, or improper nutrition (large quantities of sugar). It also acts as a preservative for the product and is commonly used in food preservation. The L form is the only form that can be utilized in formation with L-Amino Acids into collagen and elastin.

Laurel Berry - A mild surfactant derived from milk fatty acids and laurell leaf.

Laureth 14 - A mild detergent found to be non-toxic.

L-Castor Oil - A natural oil that improves the slide (texture) of the skin; it is emollient and improves the absorption of active ingredients.

Lecithin - A plant phosolipid derived from soybeans. It acts as a natural emulsifier in creams and lotions as well as a soothing and moisturizing agent on the skin.

L-Hyaluronate – A powerful moisturizer and connective tissue builder.

Linseed Extract - Also known as common flax. One of the main components of flax is lignan, which has plant estrogen as well as antioxidants. A skin conditioning agent.

L-Lactic Acid - Derived from yogurt, this AHA finesses protein-softening and cell turnover with its left-hand orientation.

L-Limonene - A natural fragrance that acts as an antiseptic.

L-Malic Acid - Derived from green apples, it increases cell turnover and increases skin softening.

L-Mandelic Acid - Derived from almonds, it is a powerful antioxidant.

L-Menthol - Used as a fragrance. It is also known for its refreshing, cooling, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties.

L-Retinol - See Vitamin A.

L-Salicylic Acid – An exfoliant and antibacterial.

L-Sodium PCA - A important chiral component of human plasma and skin; derived from molasses. It is a highly effective moisturizer.

L-Sodium-Hyaluronate - A chiral hyaluronic; from polymerized plant D-Glucuronic. Improves cellular ability to hold moisture; expands tissue allowing more cells to migrate into the additional spaces between collagen fibers. It helps skin 'plump' to correct wrinkles and fill depressed surface scars.

L-Tartaric Acid - Derived from grapes, it increases cell turnover and increases skin softening.

Lycopene - Derived from tomatoes, it is a powerful antioxidant.

Lysolecithin - A component of cell membranes.

Lysophosphatidic Acid - A phosolipid derivative that can act as a signaling molecule.

M

Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil - Moisturizes and protects the skin. Used as an emollient.

Malic Acid - An AHA found in berries, it promotes better circulation and healthier capillaries in skin.

Mango Extract - Aromatherapy.

Methosulfate - Used in shampoos and conditioners to moisturize and condition the hair to the roots. A very mild yet effective ingredient known for its de-tangling and hair thickening properties.

Methyglycine - A derivative of the amino acid glycine. It can be found in beans and liver. A mitrochondrial enhancement.

Methylated Karate - Derived from shea butter, it is an emollient.

Milk Caprilic/Capric Triglycerides and Milk Caprylate/Caprate Triglycrides - Found in dairy butter and milk, they are fatty acids that are anti-fungal. They condition (soften) the glycoproteins of the skin; they moisturize the skin and improve the permeability barrier of the stratum corneum.

Mint - Used as a fragrance. Also has antioxidant properties.

N

N-Hydroxysuccinmide - Used in beauty products as an ester. Activates the elimination of blood originated pigments responsible for dark color and inflammation that causes under eye circles.

Niacinamide – A Vitamin B3 derivative.

O

Olive Oil - Contains a wide variety of valuable antioxidants that are not found in other oils. Rich in oleic and palmitic acids, along with squalene and sterols, this nutrient emollient helps to condition and nourish the skin.

Omega 3, 6, and 9 Oils - Fatty acids that are important for all systems of the body to function normally, including your skin, respiratory system, circulatory system, brain and organs.

Onion Extract - Proposed as a means of reducing scars.

P

Palm Glycerides - The fatty acid component of palm oil. Contains antioxidants and repairing ingredients. Used as an emollient.

Palmitoyl - Used in beauty products to suppress the production of excess interleukins, the chemical messengers which trigger the body's acute inflammatory response.

Palmitoyl Oligopeptide - Stimulates collagen production and encourages the production of intercellular matrix substances such as hyaluronic acids.

PEG-100 - An emollient, emulsifier and moisturizer. Helps water mix with oil and dirt on the skin and hair so that they can be rinsed away.

PEG-150 - A non-toxic emulsifier.

Pentapeptides - Bioactive five-chain amino acids that reduce inflammation, relax muscles, and thus reduce fine lines and wrinkles.

Phellodendron Amurense Bark Extract - Applied to the skin for psoriasis, to kill germs and to reduce redness and swelling. Its main biological activities are anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and sebum regulation.

Phenyl Butyl Nitrone - See spin trap.

Phosphatidylcholine - A component of all cell membranes.

Phospholipids - A type of lipid (fat) composed of glycerol, fatty acids and phosphate. Phosolipids are essential to the function of cell membranes. Used as an natural emulsifier or for encapsulation of sensitive benefit agents.

Pineapple Enzymes - Also known as papain, this is a powerful enzyme that exfoliates the skin.

Plant Cellulose - Used as a skin emollient and/or texture that helps foaming action.

Plant Polysaccharides - Sugar polymers from flax; enhances immune function of the skin; thickens the emulsion and are emollient to the skin.

Polyglucose – A glucose polymer and moisturizer.

Poly-Sorbate 80 - A non-toxic, non-comedogenic emulsifier.

Pomegranate - A powerful antioxidant.

Porphyra Umbilicalis (Red Algae) Extract - Skin conditioning agent.

Potassium Cetyl Phosphate - A surfactant and emulsifying agent used as a cleansing agent.

Potassium Sorbate - A wide spectrum anti-microbial, Potassium Sorbate is intended for inhibition of common microorganisms such as mold, yeast and bacteria.

Pyruvic Acid - A key intersection in several metabolic pathways. Pyruvic acid supplies energy to living cells through the citric acid cycle when oxygen is present.

R

Raspberry Extract - Aromatherapy.

Red Grape Seed - A powerful antioxidant.

Red Wine - A powerful antioxidant.

Rice Starch - Is soothing to the skin and has anti-inflammatory properties.

Rose Hip Seed Oil - Extracted from the seeds of a rose bush, it is unique among vegetable oils in containing retinol (Vitamin A) and is also high in Vitamin C. It is used to heal scarring and to diminish photo-aging.

Royal Gelee - Contains B-complex vitamins and trace minerals, along with some enzymes, antibacterial and antibiotic components.

S

Safflower Oil - Helps maintain elasticity and is especially beneficial to sensitive and dry skin.

Salicylic Acid - A BHA commonly found in aspirin, it clarifies and exfoliates the skin. It has anti-inflammatory properties.

Saponins - The non-sugar part of saponins have a direct antioxidant activity, which may result in other benefits such as reduced risk of cancer and heart disease.

Sard Oil – Omega 6 oil.

Shark Cartilage - Helps improve the elasticity of tissues. Beneficial in treating psoriasis.

Shatrales – A mushroom extract with immune system stimulants.

Shea Butter - From the Karite tree, it contains L-Phytosterols and D-Alpha Tecopherol (Vitamin E) to prevent lipid peroxidation in the epidermis. It is a natural decongestant.

Silicone - Important in wound healing, aging and maybe acne control.

Sodium Chloride - A crystalline solid, normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. It is commonly used in surfactant systems to adjust viscosity or enhance preservation.

Sodium Hydroxide - A inorganic compound used to control the pH levels or serve as a buffering agent in cosmetics and personal care products.

Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate - A naturally derived sugar-based surfactant. Due to its natural origin, this surfactant is very gentle and readily biodegradable.

Sodium Hydroxypropylsulfonate - Used as a cleanser and for skin conditioning. It is also an emulsifier.

Sodium Lactate - Acts as a preservative and acidity regulator.

Sodium PCA - The sodium salt of Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid (PCA). It is an element of the skin's natural moisturizing factor. It is used to boos moisture content of the skin and provide intensive hydration, while improving elasticity and softness.

Soybean Oil - A natural UV ray blocker. Helps keep pollutants from entering skin pores. These properties help aid in the anti-aging process.

Sphingolipids - Complex lipids which contain sphingosine or a related base, a polar headgroup and a long saturated or monosaturated fatty acid connected to the backbone at its amino group. A skin conditioning agent.

Spin Trap - The most powerful antioxidant known, milligram per milligram. It does not destroy the free radical (rogue oxygen), rather it traps it and escorts it back to the respiratory cycle where it is utilized in tissue respiration. The world's only intelligent antioxidant.

Spinach - A dark leafy green plant packed with anti-oxidant powerhouses which work to slow down the aging process and protect skin cells from free radical damage. It also strengthens your skin tissue and has high anti-inflammatory properties.

Squalene - Derived from olives, it is similar in structure to human squalene and boots the effectiveness of the left-handed L-Lactic Acid. It brings moisture to the epidermal lipid layer.

Strawberry and Melon Extract - Recommended for oily skin to help with sebum production and large pores. It is a great wound and burn healer as well as an astringent.

Succinic Acid - Produced from lichen, it has a mild surfactant action and benefits the succinic acid portion of the ATP producing krebs cycle.

Sugar Polymers - Silky polysaccharides taken from flax, they thicken the formulation and are themselves emollient to the skin.

Sweet Whey - A natural protein that is vitamin rich.

Syringa Vulgaris (Lilac) - Extract of the Lilac plant. A skin conditioning agent.

T

Tetrahydrocurcuminoids - A potent antioxidant.

Tetrapeptide-3, 7 – Cell signal that compounds directing cellular processes.

Tocopheryl Acetate - Also known as Vitamin E acetate. It is made by the esterification of Tocopherol with acetic acid. Tocopheryl acetate is used as an alternative totocopherol itself because it is a more stable compound. It provides protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays.

Triglycerides – Natural fatty acids providing natural fatty moisturizers.

V

Vegetable Glycerin - Water soluble with emollient-like properties which soften and soothe the skin; it assists the outer epidermis in retaining moisture.

Vinca Minor - Enhances blood circulation.

Viola Tricolor - A soothing, bitter-sweet herb that possesses purifying actions. It contains rutin, a chemical known for its restorative actions on capillary membranes.

Vitamin A (L-Retinol) - The exact vitamin in an isomer utilized by the body for skin health, that is proper hydration, tone and color and acts as a very powerful antioxidant, just as it acts when the body produces it naturally.

Vitamin C - See ascorbic acid 20%.

Vitamin D3, E and F - Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the productions of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Vitamin F is a term for two essential fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6. These fats' primary functions is to repair and create tissue in the body.

W

Wheat Germ - Extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel. This highly nutritive oil is rich in Vitamin E and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids. Helps to moisturize and relieve, dry irritated skin.

X

Xanthan Gum - A natural thickener.

Y

Ylang-Ylang – A flower fragrance and phytonutrient. A mood elevator.

Z

Zea Mays Oil - Corn oil that contains a high concentration of Vitamin E (excellent for the skin) and essential fatty acids. The fatty acids are what enable it to be an emulsifier.

Zeolite - Removes pollution by deeply cleansing, purifying and detoxifying your skin, unclogging and refining your pores and eliminating free radicals.

Zinc Oxide - A white mineral pigment with skin-protecting properties.